Saturday, February 2, 2013

Sunday Knox: 1 Corinthians 12:31-13:13

This second reading for this Sunday is, of course, a classic for weddings:

Knox Bible:

"Prize the best gifts of heaven. Meanwhile, I can shew you a way which is better than any other.[a]
I may speak with every tongue that men and angels use; yet, if I lack charity, I am no better than echoing bronze, or the clash of cymbals. I may have powers of prophecy, no secret hidden from me, no knowledge too deep for me; I may have utter faith, so that I can move mountains; yet if I lack charity, I count for nothing.[b] I may give away all that I have, to feed the poor; I may give myself up to be burnt at the stake; if I lack charity, it goes for nothing.[c] Charity is patient, is kind; charity feels no envy; charity is never perverse or proud, never insolent;does not claim its rights, cannot be provoked, does not brood over an injury; takes no pleasure in wrong-doing, but rejoices at the victory of truth; sustains, believes, hopes, endures, to the last. The time will come when we shall outgrow prophecy, when speaking with tongues will come to an end, when knowledge will be swept away; we shall never have finished with charity. Our knowledge, our prophecy, are only glimpses of the truth; and these glimpses will be swept away when the time of fulfilment comes.  (Just so, when I was a child, I talked like a child, I had the intelligence, the thoughts of a child; since I became a man, I have outgrown childish ways.) At present, we are looking at a confused reflection in a mirror; then, we shall see face to face; now, I have only glimpses of knowledge; then, I shall recognize God as he has recognized me. Meanwhile, faith, hope and charity persist, all three; but the greatest of them all is charity.[e]

Knox Bible Footnotes:

  1. I Corinthians 12:31 Charity is itself a gift, and, if it is contrasted with other spiritual gifts, overshadows them all.
  2. I Corinthians 13:2 Cf. Mt. 21.21.
  3. I Corinthians 13:3 Some Greek manuscripts have ‘in order to boast of it’ instead of ‘to be burnt at the stake’.
  4. I Corinthians 13:5 ‘Never insolent’; the Latin word used here means ‘ambitious’, but the Greek original has rather the sense of ‘indecorous’.
  5. I Corinthians 13:13 St Irenaeus and Tertullian, followed by some modern authors, understand this as meaning that all three theological virtues will persist in heaven; but this interpretation would be irrelevant to the present context.

"Strive eagerly for the greatest spiritual gifts.
But I shall show you a still more excellent way.

If I speak in human and angelic tongues,
but do not have love,
I am a resounding gong or a clashing cymbal.
And if I have the gift of prophecy,
and comprehend all mysteries and all knowledge;
if I have all faith so as to move mountains,
but do not have love, I am nothing.
If I give away everything I own,
and if I hand my body over so that I may boast,
but do not have love, I gain nothing.

Love is patient, love is kind.
It is not jealous, it is not pompous,
It is not inflated, it is not rude,
it does not seek its own interests,
it is not quick-tempered, it does not brood over injury,
it does not rejoice over wrongdoing
but rejoices with the truth.
It bears all things, believes all things,
hopes all things, endures all things.

Love never fails.
If there are prophecies, they will be brought to nothing;
if tongues, they will cease;
if knowledge, it will be brought to nothing.
For we know partially and we prophesy partially,
but when the perfect comes, the partial will pass away.
When I was a child, I used to talk as a child,
think as a child, reason as a child;
when I became a man, I put aside childish things.
At present we see indistinctly, as in a mirror,
but then face to face.
At present I know partially;
then I shall know fully, as I am fully known.
So faith, hope, love remain, these three;
but the greatest of these is love."

NABRE Notes:

* [13:113] This chapter involves a shift of perspective and a new point. All or part of the material may once have been an independent piece in the style of Hellenistic eulogies of virtues, but it is now integrated, by editing, into the context of 1 Cor 1214 (cf. the reference to tongues and prophecy) and into the letter as a whole (cf. the references to knowledge and to behavior). The function of 1 Cor 13 within the discussion of spiritual gifts is to relativize all the charisms by contrasting them with the more basic, pervasive, and enduring value that gives them their purpose and their effectiveness. The rhetoric of this chapter is striking.

* [13:13] An inventory of gifts, arranged in careful gradation: neither tongues (on the lowest rung), nor prophecy, knowledge, or faith, nor even self-sacrifice has value unless informed by love.

* [13:47] This paragraph is developed by personification and enumeration, defining love by what it does or does not do. The Greek contains fifteen verbs; it is natural to translate many of them by adjectives in English.

* [13:813] The final paragraph announces its topic, Love never fails (1 Cor 13:8), then develops the permanence of love in contrast to the charisms (1 Cor 13:912), and finally asserts love’s superiority even over the other “theological virtues” (1 Cor 13:13).

* [13:13] In speaking of love, Paul is led by spontaneous association to mention faith and hope as well. They are already a well-known triad (cf. 1 Thes 1:3), three interrelated (cf. 1 Cor 13:7) features of Christian life, more fundamental than any particular charism. The greatest…is love: love is operative even within the other members of the triad (7), so that it has a certain primacy among them. Or, if the perspective is temporal, love will remain (cf. “never fails,” 1 Cor 13:8) even when faith has yielded to sight and hope to possession


losabio said...

The Knox is interesting and lovely. I have heard and read that passage so many times that the more familiar NABRE rendering is seems comfortably right. I read some commentary that suggested that, if God is love, and our Lord is an ultimate expression of that love, to try reading 1 Cor 13 substituting the name of Jesus for every instance of love/charity.

Jason Engel said...

I find it funny that you mention this as the favorite wedding passage (which it is), because I used it as the basis for a service I led at church two Sundays ago on what love means for members of a faith community striving for right relationships. I reviewed several translations trying to find the most poetic English, even tried rewriting it based on several. The NABRE and Knox, though, were very much not in contention, especially Knox with his KJV-flavored "charity" instead of "love" for the Greek "agape".

Biblical Catholic said...

Charity may not be the most poetic, it does however have the benefit of being more accurate.